In theory, a family member of an EU internal market who does not fulfil the above conditions does not have to apply for a visa in advance and can instead obtain a visa on arrival at the border control of a Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, attesting to his family relationship.  Like the other countries on this list, Romania is not yet part of the Schengen area. However, Romania is a member of the European Union. The Romanian government has decided to allow foreigners holding a Schengen visa to enter Romania for a short stay, provided they meet all the conditions. Some third-country nationals may stay in the Schengen area for more than 90 days without having to apply for an extended residence visa. For example, France does not require nationals of European microstates to apply for a visa for an extended stay.  Nationals of countries (such as Australia, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United States) that have concluded visa waiver agreements with certain Schengen States prior to the implementation of the Schengen Agreement may stay in each of those Schengen States for up to 90 days without a visa for an extended stay (see section “Rules applicable to nationals in Annex II above”). In addition to the 26 Member States of the Schengen area, three micro-states are also part of this area. A Schengen visa also grants entry to the following micro-states: one EU Member State – Ireland – has negotiated Schengen derogations and continues to carry out border controls with other EU Member States, while being part of the Common Travel Area with the UNITED KINGDOM (a former EU member).
The remaining four EU Member States – Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – are required to join the Schengen area. However, before fully implementing the Schengen rules, each state must have its will assessed in four areas: air borders, visas, police cooperation and the protection of personal data. This evaluation process includes a questionnaire and visits by EU experts to selected institutions and jobs in the country to be assessed.  LTV holders can only enter the Schengen Member State that issued the visa. You cannot enter other Schengen countries unless this has been allowed during the visa application procedure. Holders of a visa with limited territorial validity may not enter, enter or transit through any other country other than the country that issued the visa.